The collection comprises a diverse range of everyday and monumental objects, primarily dating from the first century BC to the fifth century AD.
It includes a richly varied and exquisite series of Latin inscriptions, representing Hispano-Roman epigraphy on stone (altars, pedestals, stelae and milestones) and bronze (legal tablets), as well as an equally important group of sculptures and portraits depicting the main ruling dynasties of the Roman Empire (Julio-Claudian, Flavian, Nerva-Antonine and Severan). There are also several outstanding sculptures, mosaics and inscriptions from outside the peninsula (Italy and North Africa).
This section contains objects associated with different aspects of the Roman presence in the Iberian Peninsula, such as the language and laws of Rome, Roman technologies for public works, and the creation of an urban society, reflected most notably in the forum. Meanwhile, everyday objects used inside and outside the home offer an insight into the daily lives of Hispano-Roman men and women.