This is the transition period between prehistory and the start of history. For its study, both archaeological techniques and an analysis of written texts by Greek and Latin authors may be used.
Referring to the Iberian Peninsula, protohistory is an idea applied chronologically to nearly the whole first millennium BC and, culturally, to the period generically called the Iron Age, which took place until the definitive Roman conquest, at the turn of the millennium.
In this long period in the Iberian Peninsula, a series of pupils grew up who, beginning from a local cultural base and the various external influences received (Phoenician, Punic, and Greek), formed two areas of influence, Iberian and Celtic, with contacts between them.
In time, the early stages of Peninsular protohistory coincide with Italian and Central European cultures such as the Villanovan and Hallstatt cultures, and its later stages are contemporary with the Etruscan, La Tène, Phoenician, Punic, Greek and Roman cultures.