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  5. The boar signum in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional and the boar (lying) and boar (skull) Clunia countermarks...?

The boar signum in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional and the boar (lying) and boar (skull) Clunia countermarks: legionary symbol or image of town proclaiming Galba emperor?

Volumen: 39/2020 Salto de línea Sección: Varia Salto de línea Publicación: 2020-11-05

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The boar signum in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional and the boar (lying) and boar (skull) Clunia countermarks: legionary symbol or image of town proclaiming Galba emperor?

Rodolfo MartiniSalto de línea Gabinetto Numismatico e Medagliere (Milán, Italia)

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Resumen

The boar on the seal from the Museo Arqueológico Nacional shows the originality of this countermark device on the obverse of Clunia issue. The animal is neither erect nor in motion but lying with its legs under its body. The lying posture seems to bear no relation to portrayals from the legionary milieu as found on seals, emblems, standards, and so forth. This unprecedented countermark device, struck only on the obverse, is associated with an image on the reverse of the coinage showing the animal’s cranium. The image has always been described as a «boar’s head», although its shape and detail depict the animal’s skinless skull. No plausible explanation has been given. What is certain is the relationship between the two types, always paired, the former on the obverse, the latter on the reverse. The two countermarks were struck at Clunia in the spring of 68 CE in the context of events culminating with Galba’s acclamation. They represent the whole series of propitiatory rites, from initial animal sacrifice, with victim depicted prone, to the ritual banquet that wraps up the ceremonies, where the skinned skull is trophy and loot. The countermarks’ application exclusively to Clunia issue shows that the events of spring 68 CE directly involved not only the legionary milieu, which was responsible for Galba’s acclamation, but also the whole community of citizens called upon to take active part in the political process.

Palabras clave

Legio VI. Legio X. Legions. Local coinage. Coins circulation.

Referencias

ACIP = Villaronga L., y Benages J. (2011): Ancient Coinage of the Iberian Peninsula (= ACIP). Barcelona: Societat Catalana d’Estudis Numismàtics.

García-Bellido, M.ª P. (2004): Las legiones hispánicas en Germania. Moneda y ejército. Anejos de Gladius, 6, Madrid.

— (2006): «XIII. Las contramarcas», Los campamentos romanos en Hispania (27 a. C. - 192 d. C.). Volumen I. El abastecimiento de moneda. Anejos de Gladius, 9. Madrid, pp. 567-606.

Haley, E. W. (1992), «Clunia, Galba and the events of 68-69», Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epikraphik, 91, pp. 159-164.

Howgego, C. J. (1985): Greek Imperial Countermarks. Studies in the Provincial Coinage of the Roman Empire. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication No. 17. London.

Martini R. (2019): «LEG(io) X GEM(ina): Hispanic Legionary Countermarks Struck under the Reign of Vitellius. Notes on iconography, epigraphy, and historical context. Appendix: Initial comments on eagle (head) and boar countermarks», Boletín del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, n.º 38, pp. 203-222.

Morillo Cerdán, Á., y García Diez, F. (2000): «Signum militaris del Museo Arqueologico Nacional (Madrid, España)», Kölner Jahrbuch, 33, pp. 397-401.

Morillo Cerdán, Á., y Gómez Barreiro M. (2006): «C - Circulación monetaria en Herrera de Pisuerga (Palencia)», Los campamentos romanos en Hispania (27 a. C. - 192 d. C.). Volumen I. El abastecimiento de moneda. Anejos de Gladius, 9. Madrid, pp. 338-438.

RPC = Roman Provinciale Coinage, vol. I. London – Paris. 1992.

Ruiz Trapero, M. (2000): Las monedas hispánicas del Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan. Vols. I-II. Madrid.

© El autor

Este contenido se distribuye bajo una licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional (CC BY 4.0).

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Boletín 39 (2020). Portada

ISSN: 2341-3409Salto de línea ISSN-L: 0212-5544

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